Bone marrow transplantation is a medical procedure that replaces damaged or destroyed bone morrow resulting from primary or secondary infiltrative diseases, infections, or chemotherapy, with healthy bone marrow stem cells.
The transplanted new stem cells produce new blood cells and promote the growth of new bone marrow.
Chemotherapy, radiation or both may be given prior to transplantation. This may be done with high doses of chemotherapy, radiation or both (ablative treatment), or lower doses of chemotherapy, radiation or both (reduced intensity treatment or mini transplant).
There are three kinds of bone marrow transplants that consist of autologous bone marrow transplant, allogeneic bone marrow transplant, and umbilical cord blood transplant. Bone marrow transplant is performed on children and adults.